Huang, Z, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2023). A simple statistical framework for small sample studies. bioRxiv.


Arnold, DH, Saurels, BW, Anderson, N, Andresen, I, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2024). Predicting the subjective intensity of imagined experiences from electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity. Scientific Reports 14: 836.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Kolf, A, Lai, C, Huang, T, & Kinoshita, S (2024). The Everchanging Sky-Tower – an apparent giant. Perception 53(3): 211-214.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2024). Implausible paraneuroscience. Cortex 172: 236-237.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2024). What is the true range of mental imagery? Cortex 170: 21-25.


Urale, PWB, Zhu, L, Gough, R, Arnold, DH, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2023). Extrastriate activity reflects the absence of local retinal input. Consciousness & Cognition 114: 103566.

Tangtartharakul, G, Morgan, CA, Rushton, SK, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2023). Retinotopic connectivity maps of human visual cortex with unconstrained eye movements. Human Brain Mapping 44(16): 5221-5237.

Huang, Z, Urale, PWB, Morgan, CA, Rees, G, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2023). The role of awareness in shaping responses in human visual cortex. Royal Society Open Science 10: 230380.

Urale, PWB, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2023). Effects of cortical distance on the Ebbinghaus and Delboeuf illusions. Perception 52(7): 459-483.

Crüwell, S, Apthorp, D, Baker, B, Colling, L, Elson, M, Geiger, S, Lobentanzer, S, Monéger, J, Patterson, A, Schwarzkopf, DS, Zaneva, M, Brown, N (2023). What’s in a badge? A computational reproducibility investigation of the Open Data badge policy in one issue of Psychological Science. Psychological Science 34(4): 513-522.


Tagoh, S, Hamm, L, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Dakin, SC (2022). Motion adaptation improves acuity (but perceived size doesn’t matter). Journal of Vision 22(11): 2, 1-20.

Stoll, S, Infanti, E, de Haas, B, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2022). Pitfalls in Post Hoc Analyses of Population Receptive Field Data. NeuroImage 263: 119557.

Farahbakhsh, M, Anderson, EJ, Rider, A, Greenwood, JA, Hirji, N, Zaman, S, Jones, PR, Schwarzkopf, DS, Rees, G, Michaelides, M, & Dekker, TM (2022). A demonstration of cone function plasticity after gene therapy in achromatopsia. Brain 145(11): 3803–3815.

Urale, PWB, Pucket, AM, York, A, Arnold, D, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2022). Highly accurate retinotopic maps of the physiological blind spot in human visual cortex. Human Brain Mapping 43(17): 51115125.

Ho, M, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2022). The human primary visual cortex (V1) encodes the perceived position of static but not moving objects. Communications Biology 5: 181.


Alvarez, I, Finlayson, NJ, Ei, S, de Haas, B, Greenwood, JA, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2021). Heritable functional architecture in human visual cortex. NeuroImage 239: 118286.

de Haas, B, Sereno, MI, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2021). Inferior occipital gyrus is organised along common gradients of spatial and face-part selectivity. Journal of Neuroscience .


Finlayson, NJ, Neacsu, V, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2020). Spatial heterogeneity in bistable figure-ground perception. i-Perception 11(5): 1-16.

Stoll, S, Finlayson, NJ, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2020). Topographic Signatures of Global Object Perception in Human Visual Cortex. NeuroImage 220: 116926.

Alvarez, I, Smittenaar, R, Handley, SE, Liasis, A, Sereno, MI, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Clark, CA (2020). Altered visual population receptive fields in human albinism. Cortex 128: 107-123.

Infanti, I, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2020). Mapping sequences can bias population receptive field estimates. NeuroImage 211: 116636.

Morgan, C, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2020). Comparison of human population receptive field estimates between scanners and the effect of temporal filtering. F1000Research 8: 1681.


de-Wit, L, Ekroll, V, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Wagemans, J (2019). Is information theory, or the assumptions that surround it, holding back neuroscience? Behavioural & Brain Sciences 42: e223.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2019). Size perception biases are temporally stable and vary consistently between visual field meridians. i-Perception 10(5): 1–9.

de Haas, B, Iakovidis, AL, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Gegenfurtner, KR (2019). Individual differences in visual salience vary along semantic dimensions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA

Hughes, AE, Greenwood, JA, Finlayson, NJ, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2019). Population receptive field estimate for motion-defined stimuli. NeuroImage 199: 245-260.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2019) The red thread in the maze. Cortex S0010-9452(18): 30442-30448.

Dekker, TM, de Haas, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, Nardini, M, & Sereno, MI (2019). Population receptive field tuning properties of visual cortex during childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 37: 100614.


Moutsiana, C, Soliman, R, de-Wit, L, James-Galton, M, Sereno, MI, Plant, GT, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2018). Unexplained progressive visual field loss in the presence of normal retinotopic maps. Frontiers in Psychology 9: 1722.

Finlayson, NJ, Manser-Smith, K, Balraj, A, de Haas, B, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2018). The optimal experimental design for Multiple Alternatives Perceptual Search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 80(8): 1962-1973.

de Haas, B, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2018) Feature-location effects in the Thatcher illusion. Journal of Vision 18(4): 16.

Weil, RS, Schwarzkopf, DS, Bahrami, B, Fleming, SM, Jackson, BM, Goch, TJC, Saygin, AP, Miller, LE, Pappa, K, Pavisic, I, Schade, RN, Noyce, AJ, Crutch, SJ, O’Keeffe, AG, Schrag, AE, & Morris, HR (2018). Assessing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: An online tool to detect visuo-perceptual deficits. Movement Disorders 33(4): 544-553.

Scott-Samuel, NE, Ashida, H, Lovell, PG, Meese, TS, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2018). Stacking Chairs: Local Sense and Global Nonsense. i-Perception 9(1).

de Haas B, & Schwarzkopf DS (2018). Spatially selective responses to Kanizsa and occlusion stimuli in human visual cortex. Scientific Reports 8: 611.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2018). On the plausibility of scientific hypotheses: Commentary on Mossbridge and Radin (2018). Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 5(1): 94-97. (Pre-published PDF)


Jacobs, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Silvanto, J (2017). Visual working memory performance in aphantasia. Cortex 105: 61-73.

Weil, RS, Pappa, K, Schade, RN, Schrag, AE, Bahrami, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, Crutch, SJ, O’Keeffe, AG, & Morris, HR (2017). The Cats-and-Dogs test: A tool to identify visuoperceptual deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders 32(12): 1789-1790.

Zeidman, P, Silson, EH, Schwarzkopf, DS, Baker, CI, & Penny, W (2017) Bayesian population receptive field modelling. NeuroImage S1053-8119(17): 30746-2.

Finlayson, NJ, Papageorgiou A, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2017). A new method for mapping perceptual biases across visual space. Journal of Vision 17(9): 5.

Anderson, E, Tibber, M, Schwarzkopf, DS, Shergill, S, Fernandez-Egea, E, Rees, G, & Dakin, S (2017). Visual population receptive fields in people with schizophrenia have reduced inhibitory surrounds. Journal of Neuroscience 37(6): 1546-1556.

Allen, M, Glen, JC, Müllensiefen, D, Schwarzkopf, DS, Fardo, F, Frank, D, Callaghan, MF, & Rees, G (2017). Metacognitive ability correlates with hippocampal and prefrontal microstructure. NeuroImage 149: 415-23..

Axelrod, V, Schwarzkopf, DS, Gilaie-Dotan, S, & Rees, G (2017). Perceptual similarity and the neural correlates of geometrical illusions in human brain structure. Scientific Reports 7: 39968.

Tailor, VK, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Dahlmann-Noor AH (2017). Neuroplasticity and amblyopia: vision at the balance point. Current Opinion in Neurology 30(1): 74-83.


Allen, M, Frank, F, Schwarzkopf, DS, Fardo, F, Winston, JS, Hauser, TU, & Rees, G (2016). Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence. eLife 5: e18103.

van Dijk, JA, de Haas, B, Moutsiana, C, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2016). Intersession reliability of population receptive field estimates. NeuroImage 143: 293–303.

Banica, T, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2016). Induction of Kanizsa contours requires awareness of the inducing context. PLoS One 11(8): e0161177.

Moutsiana*, C, de Haas*, B, Papageorgiou, A, van Dijk, JA, Balraj, A, Greenwood, JA, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2016). Cortical idiosyncrasies predict the perception of object size. Nature Communications 7: 12110.

Gregory, S, Fusca, M, Rees, G, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Barnes, G (2016). Gamma frequency and the spatial tuning of primary visual cortex. PLoS One 11(6): e0157374.

de Haas, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, Alvarez, I, Lawson, R, Henriksson, L, Kriegeskorte, N, & Rees, G (2016). Perception and processing of faces in the human brain is tuned to typical feature locations. Journal of Neuroscience 36(36): 9289-9302.

Smittenaar, CR, MacSweeney, M, Sereno, MI, & Schwarzkopf, DS
(2016). Does Congenital Deafness Affect the Structural and Functional Architecture of Primary Visual Cortex? Open Neuroimaging Journal 10: 1-19.

de Haas, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2016). Attention and multisensory modulation argue against total encapsulation – Comment on Firestone & Scholl. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 39: e237.


Alvarez, I, de Haas, B, Clark, CA, Rees, G, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2015). Comparing different stimulus configurations for population receptive field mapping in human fMRI. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9: 96.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2015). Where is size in the brain of the beholder? Multisensory Research 28(3-4): 285-96. (Download PDF)

Song, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, Kanai, R, & Rees, G (2015). Neural population tuning links visual cortical anatomy to human visual perception. Neuron 85(3): 641-56.


Wilks, CEH, Rees, G, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2014). Dissociable processes for orientation discrimination learning and contextual illusion magnitude. PLoS One 9(7): e103121.

Alvarez, I, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Clark, CA (2014). Extrastriate projections in human optic radiation revealed by fMRI-informed tractography. Brain Structure & Function 220(5): 2519-32.

Schwarzkopf, DS (2014). We should have seen this coming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 332.

de-Wit, L, & Schwarzkopf, DS (2014). Do we need another neural correlate of contour integration? i-Perception 5(1): 50-2.

Schwarzkopf*, DS, Anderson*, EJ, de Haas, B, White, SJ, & Rees, G (2014). Larger extrastriate population receptive fields in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neuroscience 34(7): 2713-24.

de Haas, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, Anderson, EJ, & Rees, G (2014). Perceptual load at fixation changes spatial tuning of neuronal populations in human early visual cortex. Current Biology 24(2): R66-7.
Note: We discovered a statistical issue that led us to lose confidence in the reported results in this study and therefore the article has been retracted. See here for more details. However, the study can still be cited and the data from this form the basis of the canonical hemodynamic response function in SamSrf. This aspect of the work remains valid.


Song, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, Lutti, L, Li, B, Kanai, R, & Rees, G (2013). Effective connectivity within human primary visual cortex predicts inter-individual diversity in illusory perception. Journal of Neuroscience 33(48):18781-91.

Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2013). Perceptual organization and consciousness. In J. Wagemans (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Perceptual Organization. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Song, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2013). Variability in visual cortex size reflects tradeoff between local orientation sensitivity and global orientation modulation. Nature Communications 4:2201.

Urner, M, Schwarzkopf, DS, Friston, K, & Rees, G (2013). Early visual learning induces long-lasting connectivity changes during rest in the human brain. NeuroImage 77:148-56.

Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2013). Subjective Size Perception Depends on Central Visual Cortical Magnification in Human V1. PLoS One 8(3): e60550.

de Haas, B, Schwarzkopf, DS, Urner, M, & Rees, G (2013). Auditory Modulation of Visual Stimulus Encoding in Human Retinotopic Cortex. NeuroImage 70C:258-267.

Apthorp*, D, Schwarzkopf*, DS, Kaul, C, Bahrami, B, Alais, D, & Rees, G (2013). Direct evidence for encoding of motion streaks in human visual cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1752): 20122339.


Pinotsis, DA, Schwarzkopf, DS, Litvak, V, Rees, G, Barnes, G, & Friston, K (2012). Dynamic Causal Modelling of lateral interactions in the visual cortex. NeuroImage 66C:563-576.

Schwarzkopf, DS, de Haas, B & Rees, G (2012). Better ways to improve standards in brain-behavior correlation analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:200. (Matlab code)

Anderson, EJ, Dakin, SC, Schwarzkopf, DS, Rees, G & Greenwood, J (2012). The Neural Correlates of Crowding-Induced Changes in Appearance. Current Biology 22(13): 1199-206.

Zeidman P, Mullally SL, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Maguire, EA (2012). Exploring the parahippocampal cortex response to high and low spatial frequency spaces. Neuroreport 23(8): 503-7.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Robertson, DJ, Song, C, Barnes, GR, & Rees, G (2012). The frequency of visually induced gamma-band oscillations depends on the size of early human visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 32(4): 1507-12.


Song, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, Kanai, R, & Rees, G (2011). Reciprocal anatomical relationship between primary sensory and prefrontal cortices in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience 31(26): 9472-80.

Mitchell, D, Sengpiel, F, Hamilton, D, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Kennie, J (2011). Protection against deprivation amblyopia depends on relative not absolute daily binocular exposure. Journal of Vision 11(7): 13.

Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2011). Pattern classification using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2:n/a. doi:10.1002/wcs.141

Song, C, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2011). Interocular induction of illusory size perception. BMC Neuroscience 12(1): 27.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Silvanto, J, & Rees, G (2011). Stochastic resonance effects reveal the neural mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience 31(9): 3143-3147.

Harris*, JJ, Schwarzkopf*, DS, Song, C, Bahrami, B, & Rees, G (2011). Contextual illusions reveal the limit of unconscious visual processing. Psychological Science 22(3): 399-405.

Song, C, Kanai, R, Fleming, S, Weil, R, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2011). Relating inter-individual differences in metacognitive performance on different perceptual tasks. Consciousness & Cognition 20(4): 1787-92.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Song, C, & Rees, G (2011). The surface area of human V1 predicts the subjective experience of object size. Nature Neuroscience 14: 28-30.

Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2011). Interpreting local visual features as a global shape requires awareness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278(1715): 2207-2215. (Final submission PDF is available here because the published version has half the juice in the supplementary materials)

Schwarzkopf, DS, Sterzer, P, & Rees, G (2011). Decoding of coherent but not incoherent motion signals in early dorsal visual cortex. NeuroImage 56(2): 688-98.


Schwarzkopf*, DS, Schindler*, A, & Rees, G (2010). Knowing with which eye we see: Utrocular discrimination and eye-specific signals in human visual cortex. PLoS One 5(10): e13775.

Schwarzkopf*, DS, Silvanto*, J, Gilaie-Dotan, S, & Rees G (2010). Investigating object representations during change detection in human extrastriate cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 32(10): 1780-7.

Gilaie-Dotan, S, Silvanto, J, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2010). Investigating representations of facial identity in human ventral visual cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:50.

Silvanto*, J, Schwarzkopf*, DS, Gilaie-Dotan, S, & Rees, G (2010). Differing causal roles for Lateral Occipital cortex and Occipital Face Area in invariant shape recognition. European Journal of Neuroscience 32(1): 165-171.

Schwarzkopf, DS, & Rees, G (2010). Brain Activity to Rely On? Science 327(5961): 43-44.


Mitchell, DE, Kennie, J, Schwarzkopf, DS, & Sengpiel, F (2009). Daily mixed visual experience that prevents amblyopia in cats does not always allow the development of good binocular depth perception. Journal of Vision 9(5): 22.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Zhang, J, & Kourtzi, Z (2009). Flexible learning of natural statistics in the human brain. Journal of Neurophysiology 102(3): 1854-67.


Schwarzkopf, DS, & Kourtzi, Z (2008). Experience shapes the utility of natural statistics for perceptual contour integration. Current Biology 18(15): 1162-1167.


Vorobyov, V, Schwarzkopf, DS, Mitchell, DE, & Sengpiel, F (2007). Monocular deprivation reduces reliability of visual cortical responses to binocular disparity stimuli. European Journal of Neuroscience 26(12): 3553-3563.

Schwarzkopf, DS, Vorobyov, V, Mitchell, DE, & Sengpiel, F (2007). Brief daily binocular vision prevents monocular deprivation effects in visual cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 25(1): 270-280.

* equal contribution


Please visit Sam’s Google Scholar profile for more information.